The RAA system controls fluid volume, in which when the blood volume decreases, blood flow to the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus is reduced, thereby activating the RAA system. Furthermore, an evaluation of the implemented nursing and medical treatment will also be discussed in this report.
Supplemental fluids and electrolytes are often administered. This is characteristic in the elderly in response to an increase in antidiuretic hormone secretions ADH that may develop following an increased plasma serum osmolality or volume concentration and related to a fluid deficit.
Clinical Manifestations Signs and symptoms that occur in fluid and electrolyte imbalances are discussed below. Clinical manifestations for FVE include edema, distended neck veins, and crackles. Normal output occurs as urinebreathing, perspiration, feces, and in minimal amounts of vaginal secretions.
Metabolic alkalosis occurs when bicarbonate ion concentration increases, causing an elevation in blood pH. Systems Involved in Feedback The major systems involved in feedback are the nervous and endocrine systems.
Homeostasis Homeostasis is the dynamic process in which the body maintains balance by constantly adjusting to internal and external stimuli. Extracellular fluid mostly appears as interstitial tissue fluid and intravascular fluid.
Daily output should approximately equal in intake. Richards growing dysphasia, his difficulty in comprehending language combined with decreased communication has led to an inadequate oral intake Lewis, The major compound controlled by the lungs is CO2, and the respiratory system can very rapidly compensate for too much acid and too little acid by increasing or decreasing the respiratory rate, thereby altering the level of CO2.
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Electrolyte concentrations are measured according to their chemical activity and expressed as milliequivalents. Sodium ions outnumber any other cations in the ECF; therefore it is essential in the fluid regulation of the body. The nervous system regulates homeostasis by sensing system deviations and sending nerve impulses to appropriate organs.
If the pH is greater than 7, a solution is basic or alkaline. Hypophosphatemia is indicated by a value below 2. Clinical signs and symptoms include acute weight loss, decreased skin turgor, oliguria, concentrated urine, orthostatic hypotensiona weak, rapid heart rate, flattened neck veins, increased temperature, thirst, decreased or delayed capillary refill, cool, clammy skin, muscle weakness, and cramps.
Measurement of arterial blood gas. Positive feedback enhances or intensifies the original stimulus. Filtration is the transport of water and dissolved materials concentration already exists in the cell.
An acid is one type of compound that contains the hydrogen ion. Fluid volume excess may be related to a simple fluid overload or diminished function of the homeostatic mechanisms responsible for regulating fluid balance.
Classification There are different fluid volume disturbances that may affect an individual. Active transport mechanisms require specific enzymes and an energy expenditure in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP. Bicarbonate ions are basic components in the body, and the kidneys are key in regulating the amount of bicarbonate in the body.
External causes of dehydration include prolonged sun exposure and excessive exercise, as well as diarrheavomiting, and burns. The heart also plays a role in correcting overload imbalances, by releasing ANP from the right atrium.
Hyperkalemia refers to a potassium level greater than 5. Richards presented to accident and emergency on the 7th Octoberprimarily due to the progressive deterioration of end stage motor neuron disease that was diagnosed two years ago. Hypokalemia usually indicates a deficit in total potassium stores.
Passive transport mechanisms include diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Pathophysiology Nurses need an understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid and electrolyte balance to anticipate, identify, and respond to possible imbalances. Intracellular fluid functions as a stabilizing agent for the parts of the cell, helps maintain cell shape, and assists with transport of nutrients across the cell membrane, in and out of the cell.
Each chemical element has an electrical charge, either positive or negative. Electrolytes in body fluids are active chemicals or cations that carry positive charges and anions that carry negative charges. Ongoing swallowing difficulties following an osophageal rupture ten years ago has compounded this imbalance, as inadequate fluid intake due to discomfort resulting in the refusal to eat or drink, has resulted in dehydration and malnutrition.
Body fluid is located in two fluid compartments: Diets low or excessive in electrolytes could also cause electrolyte imbalances. FVD results from loss of body fluids and occurs more rapidly when coupled with decreased fluid intake.
Causes Causes of fluid and electrolyte imbalances are discussed below in general. Hypercalcemia is calcium level greater than Nursing Students. Sign in Home; Journal Index; Journal of Infusion Nursing; Case Studies in Fluid and E Case Studies in Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy Share This.
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• Stress-Busting Kit for Nursing Students • Interactive Case Study: Hyponatremia/Fluid Volume Imbalance • NCLEX Examination Review Questions Electronic Resources Chapter 17 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances Fluids and Electrolytes Measurement of Electrolytes.
Fluid and electrolyte balance is a dynamic process that is crucial for life and homeostasis. The following are laboratory studies useful in diagnosing fluid and electrolyte imbalances: BUN.
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Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance 1 48 Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance 2 55 Community-based nursing care of the older person 2 Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance 1 Fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance 2 Case study Mental health 1 Introduction: Presenting condition.
CASE STUDIES Note: please critically evaluate & add to these italicized, indented answers as you drugs, fluid restrictions, electrolyte replacements CASE STUDY #2 A 65 year old female is admitted to your unit complaining of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for 3 days.
Her history is unremarkable except hypertension for What fluids.Download